«Registration of subsurface targets by short-range radar»
Bauman Moscow State Technical University
Conference hall of the Educational and Laboratory Building (3rd Floor)
Moscow, Rubtsovskaya nab., 2/18
25-27 October 2016
International school for young researcher:
|3rd Floor Foyer||Participant registration||9:00-10:00|
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||10:00-10:30|
|Conference Hall||The history of the development of subsurface radars and their application, Dr. Nikolay Chubinsky, Assistant Professor, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Russia||10:45-12:00|
Ground-Penetrating Radars and other Geophysics Devices Applied to Archaeology,
Dr. Timothy D. Bechtel,
Professor of Geosciences, Department of Earth & Environment, Franklin & Marshall College, USA
Archaeological excavations typically require painstaking, manual labor. Sites are carefully exposed level-by-level, in discrete excavations, with the precise positions of features and artifacts laboriously recorded or catalogued. This process is chronically underfunded, and is increasingly done under schedules and budgets that do not allow archaeologists sufficient field time. Furthermore, archaeology also faces a paradox – the careful recovery of subsurface data requires the systematic destruction of a site. Geophysics can help to address all three problems: lack of funding, lack of time, and site destruction. Non-destructive geophysical methods provide rapid, effective prospecting for potential archaeological sites (i.e. where to dig). Within a site, geophysical mapping can help archaeologists discriminate artifact- or feature-bearing (versus culturally barren or sterile) zones. All of this allows the archaeologist to establish digging priorities that will provide the maximum cultural data on a limited budget and schedule.
If a large structure or feature is encountered in only a few spaced excavations, interpretation of the structure can be a bit like the fable of the six blind men and the elephant (who variously identify the elephant as a snake, a spear, a pillar, a wall, a fan, and a rope). Geophysical mapping can connect discrete excavation windows into a feature, and help to fully delineate laterally extensive features such as walls, roads, waterways, and tunnels whose true extent and nature cannot be efficiently or correctly determined by probing.
Where sites or features are already known, detailed 2-D or 3-D subsurface imaging can provide information on the undisturbed or in-situ configuration of the feature, the site stratigraphy, and sometimes, the distribution of artifacts. Some archaeological sites cannot be excavated. The site may be covered by modern development, be incorporated into later structures (e.g. corner stones), or be culturally or politically sensitive, sacred, or ceremonial. In these cases, non-intrusive geophysics may be the only method of locating, documenting, and interpreting the site.
Currently, much archaeology is done as a salvage operation. While developers, builders, utility companies, and legislators recognize the benefits of identifying and documenting potential archaeological resources before a site is destroyed, the required construction schedule often allows far too little time for a complete and careful investigation and (if necessary) excavation of a site. Geophysical prospecting can speed the investigation process, and geophysical imaging can record discovered sites for analysis even after the site itself is gone.
This lecture will review the geophysical techniques available for archaeological studies illustrated with abundant examples: encampments, villages and fortifications; burials ranging in age from 2 to over 2000 years; fire pits, hearths, and forges; shipwrecks; time capsules and corner stones in historic buildings; and more.
|Conference Hall||The Design Principles of Short Pulse Radar, Dr. Denis Okhotnikov, Head of Analog and Digital Radio Electronics Systems Department, Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia||14:00-15:00|
Numerical modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar using the gprMax Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulator,
Dr. Craig Warren, The University of Edinburgh, UK
The use of numerical modelling techniques in Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) research and practice has become much more commonplace over recent years. Numerical modelling can be beneficial for both GPR practitioners and researchers enabling them to test and develop new ideas for processing, imaging and data interpretation. Numerical modelling is also a valuable educational tool for teaching engineers and scientists about GPR and electromagnetic wave propagation in complex environments.
The lecture will provide a short introduction to the fundamental concepts of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method for computational electromagnetics and then will focus on the latest version of gprMax (www.gprmax.com) the open source electromagnetic simulation software for modelling GPR.
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||16:00-16:30|
|Conference Hall||Data collection, processing and visualization in subsurface radio holography using video for sensor tracking, Dr. Vladimir Razevig, Senior Research Fellow of Remote Sensing Laboratory, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia||15:00-16:00|
|325 room, Main Building||Visit to the Remote Sensing Laboratory||17:00-18:00|
|Conference Hall||Inverse synthetic aperture radar for security screening of walking persons, Dr. Andrey Zhuravlev, Lead Research Fellow of Remote Sensing Laboratory, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia||9:30-10:30|
Application of GPR to tunnel surveys and the Engineering judgement,
Mr. Masaharu Inagaki, Director and Chief Geophysicist, Walnut Ltd.,Japan
Japan is a mountainous country. That is why we have many kinds of tunnels such as road tunnels, railway tunnels and tunnels for power generation. GPR was first applied to tunnel surveys three decades ago in Japan. It is said that Radar was invented to locate aircrafts. GPR usage is on its extension. Only media is different. It is not air but ground. Therefore, it is understandable that a GPR was used for locating buried pipes at that time. The purpose is to know the 3D positions of the pipes. All we need is to recognize just the existence of a reflection. Tunnel surveys are not fully satisfied by locating works. Tunnel administrators want to know structure behind lining continuously. For that the appearance of reflection waves must be evaluated physically by theoretical mind. It allows us to know layer structure and even the materials, because reflection waves convey more information related to the strength and the polarity than just the existence. The analysis requires not only theoretical thoughts but also proper prediction backed by much experience. Experience is very important, because engineering judgement must be done even under no sufficient data. It sometimes succeeds and sometimes fails. Engineer’s role is to raise the success possibility at the maximum. A GPR analyzer is an interpreter from microwave sighted world to our visible light world. Some analysis examples are shown here on tunnel surveys. I believe that the stories of an analysis engineer’s practical attitude facing to actual problems can leave something even in researchers mind.
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||11:30-12:00|
|Conference Hall||Holographic subsurface radars and their application, Dr. Sergey Ivashov, Head of Remote Sensing Laboratory, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia||12:30-13:30|
Engineering and Environmental Applications of GPR and Other Geophysical Methods,
Ms. Felicia Bechtel, President of Enviroscan, Inc.,USA
The field of exploration geophysics was originally developed to aid in resource extraction –especially for the petroleum and mining & minerals industries, and for water. Recently many methods have been adapted to shallow high resolution imaging for Environmental and Civil/Geotechnical Engineering. In the course of environmental investigations and clean-ups, site preparation, and construction works, there are many hidden subsurface features that often cause project delays, cost overruns, and safety hazards. Scanning of sites and structures using ground penetrating radar and other non-invasive geophysical methods can prevent dangerous and costly surprises. This lecture will review the main categories of modern near-surface methods, their applications, and important considerations for selecting the appropriate technique. Case histories highlighting important advantages, as well as critical limitations will be presented. Examples will include: Well Siting; Underground Utility Detection and Mapping; Dam Seepage Analysis; Rock Depth Profiling; Fault and Fracture Delineation; Landfill or Lagoon Liner Leak Detection; Contaminant Plume Delineation; Rebar, Conduit or Cable Detection; and Seismic Hazard Analysis.
|Conference Hall||Russian subsurface radars "OKO", Ms. Natalia Pudova, Lead Geophysicist, Logis Inc., Russia||15:30-16:30|
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||16:30-16:45|
|Conference Hall||Round table discussion||16:45-18:00|
Electromagnetic modeling for ground penetrating radar,
Dr. Lorenzo Crocco, Institute for the Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment , Italy
Tomographic methods nowadays represent an assessed means to process GPR data, as they allow to obtain images that are more reliable and readable than those achieved using standard GPR data processing tools. These approaches draw their strength from the suitable modeling of the electromagnetic scattering phenomenon, which is in turn exploited to cast the underlying problem as an inverse scattering one.
To date, most of the effective applications of tomographic GPR are concerned with linearized inversion approaches, which rely on a quite simple electromagnetic model deriving from first order approximations of the scattering phenomenon, but loosely dependent on the available a priori information. In addition, thanks to their computational efficiency, they allow to obtain enhanced, almost real-time, images of the underground, providing information on the presence, position and size of the buried targets.
The lecture will review the basics of model-based tomographic inversion methods for GPR with the aim of making accessible the mathematical aspects that have to be tackled in order to cast GPR imaging in terms of an inverse problems. Moreover, it will present examples to clarify these concepts and describe emerging approaches that allow to estimate also the electromagnetic features of the buried targets, while relying on a linearized inversion framework.
Holographic radar mounted on robotic scanner for shallow objects and dielectric materials investigations,
Prof. Lorenzo Capineri, University of Florence, Dept. Information Engineering, Italy
Subsurface imaging using high frequency impulse ground penetrating radar has long been studied and applied in fields such as geotechnical, environmental, and structural engineering. More recently ultrawideband radar (UWB) technology has stimulated new investigations into aerospace and medical (among others) applications. However it is a common problem that the detection of shallow targets (depth < 20 cm) is hindered by interference between the transmitted and received pulses from shallow electromagnetic impedance contrasts. Mitigating these interference effects requires complex methods of image reconstruction. However, both impulse and holographic high frequency radars are commonly limited to scanning small areas on the order of one or two square meters using manual scanning. This time consuming data acquisition method requires the preparation of a grid of reference lines on the scanned surface to guide the manual operation. Deviations from the guiding lines are common, and it is difficult to maintain accurate location control for larger areas (e.g. several square meters). For solving this problem a different approach for the investigation of short range materials is the holographic radar mounted on a robotic scanner, which measures the holographic signal on a regular and accurate grid of spatial positions. Demonstration of holographic radars operating at 2 GHz and 4 GHz can produce useful images with high spatial resolution over a variety of subsurface impedance contrasts. The talk is concerned also to the accuracy requirements for the spatial sampling of the radar measurements that should be a small fraction of the wavelength. Spatial reference methods are discussed and compared. Applications of the radar object scanner in several fields like dielectric material non destructive testing, pavements inspections and landmine detection are presented.
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||11:30-12:00|
Radar imaging for security and subsurface imaging: state of art and perspectives,
Dr. Francesco Soldovieri , Institute for the Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, Italy
Radar imaging is gaining an increasing interest due to its multifold application fields, which range from safety, to security, underground imaging and urban surveillance. This talk will be concerned with the recent advances in these fields, characterized by many practical and theoretical difficulties related to the modeling of the electromagnetic scattering in these challenging scenarios.
The difficulties are related to the aim of detecting and tracking targets moving in almost unknown scenarios, where the interactions between the targets and the objects present in the scene result in ghosts and artefacts that affect the imaging performances. In addition, this task should be carried out in real-time, which entails the necessity of effective computational approaches, and mostly by adopting non-conventional configurations.
The possible answer to the above mentioned necessities resides in the synergic use of simplified inverse scattering approaches with signal processing strategies for the target detection and tracking. In this context, the recent results of this combined approach will be shown in the fields of through wall imaging and urban surveillance thanks to numerical and experimental cases. Furthermore, we will review the very recent developments in the field of passive radar imaging systems exploiting non cooperative sources (Wifi, GPS,..), where the additional difficulty to consider not known sources has to be addressed.
Finally, we will draw the perspectives with a specific focus on the key factors improving the electromagnetic modeling at the basis of radar imaging and the deployment of new data processing approaches and post-processing strategies.
|Conference Hall||Sub-terahertz photonics and subsurface imaging, Prof. Alexey Vertiy, L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan||12:20-13:00|
|Conference Hall||Development of the devices of mines and IED for humanitarian demining, Mr. Maksim Shirokobokov, Head of Department of Electrical Prospecting, Logis Inc., Russia||14:00-14:40|
|Conference Hall||The principles of increasing the penetration depth and the application experience of GPR "Loza", Dr. Pavel Morozov, Senior Research Fellow of IZMIRAN, Moscow, Russia||14:40-15:15|
Short range radars in Remote Monitoring of Vital Signs,
Dr. Lesya Anishchenko, Senior Research Fellow of Remote Sensing Laboratory, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia
The lecture material summarizes the results of investigations into the applications of short range radar in medicine (bioradars). They provide a wide range of possibilities for remote and non-contact monitoring of the psycho-emotional state and physiological condition of many macro-organisms. In particular, the material provides information on the technical characteristics of bioradars designed at Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU), Russia, and on experiments using these radars. The results of experiments demonstrate that bioradars of BioRASCAN type may be used for simultaneous remote measurements of respiration and cardiac rhythm parameters. In addition, bioradar-assisted experiments for detection of various sleep disorders are described. The results prove that bioradiolocation allows accurate diagnosis and estimation of obstructive sleep apnea severity, and could be used in place of polysomnography which is considered the current standard medical evaluation method, but requires direct patient contact.
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||16:00-16:30|
|Conference Hall||Methods of digital data processing of holographic subsurface radars, Ms. Margarita Chizh, Junior Research Fellow of Remote Sensing Laboratory, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia||16:30-17:00|
|Conference Hall||Ceremonial Closing||17:00-17:15|